Signals Intelligence Defined

Signals Intelligence Defined

Intelligence is info gathered within or outside the U.S. that involves threats to our nation, its people, property, or interests; development, proliferation, or use of weapons of mass destruction; and some other matter bearing on the U.S. national or homeland security. Intelligence can provide insights not available elsewhere that warn of potential threats and opportunities, assess probable outcomes of proposed policy options, provide leadership profiles on overseas officials, and inform official travelers of counterintelligence and security threats.

The U.S. Intelligence Community is a federation of executive department companies and organizations that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities vital for the conduct of overseas relations and the protection of the national security of the United States. The IC remains focused on the missions of cyber intelligence, counterterrorism, counterproliferation, counterintelligence, and on the threats posed by state and non-state actors challenging U.S. nationwide security and pursuits worldwide.

The National Security Act of 1947, as amended, defines the Intelligence Community's prospects as:

The President
National Security Council
Heads of Departments and Companies of the Executive Department
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Employees and senior military commanders
Types of Intelligence
The intelligence cycle is a process of amassing information and developing it into intelligence to be used by IC customers. The steps in the process are direction, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination.

IC products can either be based mostly on a single type of collection or "all-source," that is, based upon all available types of collection. IC products additionally may be produced by one IC factor or coordinated with other IC parts, and delivered to IC prospects in numerous codecs, including papers, digital media, briefings, maps, graphics, videos, and other distribution methods.

There are six basic intelligence sources, or collection disciplines:

SIGINT—Signals intelligence is derived from signal intercepts comprising -- nonetheless transmitted -- either individually or together: all communications intelligence (COMINT), electronic intelligence (ELINT) and overseas instrumentation signals intelligence (FISINT). The National Security Company is responsible for amassing, processing, and reporting SIGINT. The National SIGINT Committee within NSA advises the Director, NSA, and the DNI on SIGINT coverage points and manages the SIGINT requirements system.

IMINT—Imagery Intelligence contains representations of objects reproduced electronically or by optical means on film, electronic display gadgets, or other media. Imagery may be derived from visual pictures, radar sensors, and electro-optics. NGA is the manager for all imagery intelligence activities, each classified and unclassified, within the federal government, including necessities, assortment, processing, exploitation, dissemination, archiving, and retrieval.

MASINT—Measurement and Signature Intelligence is data produced by quantitative and qualitative evaluation of physical attributes of targets and occasions to characterize, locate, and determine them. MASINT exploits quite a lot of phenomenologies, from quite a lot of sensors and platforms, to help signature development and evaluation, to perform technical evaluation, and to detect, characterize, find and establish targets and events. MASINT is derived from specialized, technically-derived measurements of physical phenomenon intrinsic to an object or occasion and it contains using quantitative signatures to interpret the data. The Director of DIA is both the "Intelligence Community Functional Manager for MASINT" and the "DOD MASINT Manager." The National MASINT Office (NMO) manages and executes MASINT services of frequent concern and related activities for the D/DIA in response to National and Department of Protection requirements.

HUMINT—Human intelligence is derived from human sources. To the public, HUMINT remains synonymous with espionage and clandestine activities; nonetheless, most of HUMINT assortment is carried out by overt collectors corresponding to strategic debriefers and military attaches. It is the oldest method for amassing info, and until the technical revolution of the mid- to late 20th century, it was the primary supply of intelligence.

OSINT—Open-Supply Intelligence is publicly available info showing in print or digital type including radio, television, newspapers, journals, the Internet, commercial databases, and videos, graphics, and drawings. While open-supply assortment responsibilities are broadly distributed via the IC, the major collectors are the DNI's Open Supply Center (OSC) and the National Air and House Intelligence Center (NASIC).

GEOINT—Geospatial Intelligence is the evaluation and visual illustration of security associated activities on the earth. It is produced via an integration of imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information.

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